© squirrelrehabilitation.com, 2011 Diseases Bacterial Pneumonia Definition: The most common bacteria associated with bacterial pneumonia is streptococcus pneumoniae.  This type of pneumonia can come on very quickly, and in young rodents sometimes the only symptom is sudden death. Etiology/Causes: Contact with infected mucous.  This could occur via a sneeze or touching something with residual mucous on it. Symptoms: 1.  Lethargic (inactive) 2.  Difficult/labored breathing (dyspnea) or rapid breathing/panting 3.  Snuffling/sneezing 4.  Nasal discharge 5.  Weight loss 6.  Abdominal breathing Treatment: Medical 1.  A broad spectrum antibiotic such as Baytril or Bactrim (SulfaTrim, SMZ-TMP). (Note: Penicillin-based      antibiotics such as Clavamox, Amoxycillin, and so forth are not recommended for squirrels.  While some      debate  exists on this issue, squirrels are partial hind-gut fermenters, and with related species,      veterinarians are cautioned to use the PLACE rule when determining which antibiotics to avoid:      PLACE -- penicillin, lincomycin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalosporins, clindamycin, erythromycin      (Brown and Rosenthal)). 2.  Oxygen therapy Supportive 1.  Keep the squirrel quiet 2.  Keep squirrel in a clean, smoke-free, dust-free environment. 3.  Try to keep squirrel well hydrated. Other 1.  Place a vaporizer in the room (preferably cool mist) with a few drops of eucalyptus oil in it. 2.  2.  Administer Vitamin E (an antioxidant) (Merck) References: Brown, Susan A. and Karen Rosenthal.  Self-Assessment Colour Review of Small Mammals. Merck Veterinary Manual, 10th ed. Tabor’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, 20th ed. Type: Bacterial